by van den Elsen, Erik, Lindsay C. Stringer, Cecilia De Ita, Rudi Hessel, Sonia Kéfi, Florian D. Schneide, Susana Bautista, Angeles G. Mayor, Mara Baudena, Max Rietkerk, Alejandro Valdecantos, Victoriano R. Vallejo, Nichola Geeson, C. Jane Brandt, Luuk Fleskens, Lia Hemerik, Panos Panagos, Sandra Valente, Jan J. Keizer, Gudrun Schwilch, Matteo Jucker Riva, Diana Sietz, Michalakis Christoforou, Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis, Christiana Papoutsa, Giovanni Quaranta, Rosanna Salvia, Ioannis K. Tsanis, Ioannis Daliakopoulos, Heleen Claringbould and Peter C. de Ruiter
Published: 22 October 2020
One of the most challenging issues in Mediterranean ecosystems to date has been to understand the emergence of discontinuous changes or catastrophic shifts. In the era of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, which encompass ideas around Land Degradation Neutrality, advancing this understanding has become even more critical and urgent. The aim of this paper is to synthesize insights into the drivers, processes and management of catastrophic shifts to highlight ways forward for the management of Mediterranean ecosystems. We use a multidisciplinary approach that extends beyond the typical single site, single scale, single approach studies in the current literature. We link applied and theoretical ecology at multiple scales with analyses and modeling of human–environment–climate relations and stakeholder engagement in six field sites in Mediterranean ecosystems to address three key questions:
i) How do major degradation drivers affect ecosystem functioning and services in Mediterranean ecosystems?
ii) What processes happen in the soil and vegetation during a catastrophic shift?
iii) How can management of vulnerable ecosystems be optimized using these findings?
Drawing together the findings from the use of different approaches allows us to address the whole pipeline of changes from drivers through to action. We highlight ways to assess ecosystem vulnerability that can help to prevent ecosystem shifts to undesirable states; identify cost-effective management measures that align with the vision and plans of land users; and evaluate the timing of these measures to enable optimization of their application before thresholds are reached. Such a multidisciplinary approach enables improved identification of early warning signals for discontinuous changes informing more timely and cost-effective management, allowing anticipation of, adaptation to, or even prevention of, undesirable catastrophic ecosystem shifts.
- Florian D. Schneider & Sonia Kéfi (2015), Code release for article "Spatially heterogeneous pressure raises risk of catastrophic shifts", , doi: 10.5281/zenodo.35034
- Alain Danet, Alex Genin, Vishwesha Guttal, Sonia Kefi, Sabiha Majumder, Sumithra Sankaran, Florian Schneider (Maintainer) (2015), R-package caspr: running spatial disturbance models in a cellular automata framework, , doi:
- Danet, Alain, Florian D. Schneider, Fabien Anthelme, Sonia Kéfi (2020), Indirect facilitation drives species composition and stability in drylands, Theoretical Ecology, doi: 10.1007/s12080-020-00489-0
- Alexandre Génin, Sabiha Majumder, Sumithra Sankaran, Florian D. Schneider, Alain Danet, Miguel Berdugo, Vishwesha Guttal, Sonia Kéfi (2018), Spatially heterogeneous stressors can alter the performance of indicators of regime shifts, Ecological Indicators, 94 :520-533 doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.10.071 (pdf)
- Alexandre Génin, Sabiha Majumder, Sumithra Sankaran, Alain Danet, Vishwesha Guttal, Florian D. Schneider, Sonia Kéfi (2018), Monitoring ecosystem degradation using spatial data and the R package spatialwarnings, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9 :2067-2075 doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.13058 (pdf)
- Schneider, F.D., Kéfi, S. (2015), Spatially heterogeneous pressure raises risk of catastrophic shifts, Theoretical Ecology, 9 2:207-217 doi: 10.1007/s12080-015-0289-1 (pdf)